year 21, Issue 82 (5-2022)                   J. Med. Plants 2022, 21(82): 56-65 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Esmaeili S, Keramatian B, Kashafroodi H, Choopani R, Hajimehdipoor H. Capparis spinosa L. tablet: from traditional to modern dosage form. J. Med. Plants 2022; 21 (82) :56-65
1- Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center and Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3- Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center and Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4- Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center and Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ,
Abstract:   (2845 Views)
Background: Capparis spinosa is used in Persian medicine for treatment of various diseases. In order to easier use, better patient’s acceptance and more stability, preparing a suitable dosage form is necessary. Objective: The aim of the study was preparing tablet form from caper fruits and quality assessment of the product. Methods: The fruit extraction was performed using ethanol 80% and maceration technique and the extract was dried by freeze dryer. Eight formulations were made using lactose, avicel PH-102, SiO2 and magnesium stearate. The best formulation was failed during stability tests; therefore, the extract was dried by spray drying method along with maltodextrin and SiO2 as excipients. Eight formulations were prepared using lactose, avicel PH-102, croscarmellose sodium, PVP K30 and magnesium stearate and the best one was selected. Physicochemical and microbial assessments were performed on the selected formulation and stability tests were done in 40°C and 75% humidity as well as 30°C. Results: Caper tablets with freeze dried extract were deformed and their color changed but tablets with spray dried extract were stable in 30°C. They were oblong, green-blue, biconvex, scored tablets with 20.3×9.9×6.7 mm dimensions. Weight, hardness, disintegration time, rutin assay and dissolution were 1115 mg ± 10%, 18.33 ± 1.52 kp, 15±3.5 min, 0.58 ± 0.02 mg/tab and 93.03 ± 3.61 % in 60 min, respectively. Conclusion: Caper tablets are good candidate for production in industrial scale after in vivo and clinical studies. Moreover stability assessment of the tablets should be performed in suitable packaging in long term study.
Full-Text [PDF 355 kb]   (1107 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Pharmacognosy & Pharmaceutics
Received: 2022/04/18 | Accepted: 2022/05/27 | Published: 2022/05/31

1. Ozgoli G, Shahveh M, Esmaielli S and Nassiri N. Essential oil of Citrus sinensis for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome; a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J. Reprod. Fertil. 2011; 12(2): 123-129.
2. Gunjan M, Naing TW, Saini RS, Ahmad A, Naidu JR and Kumar I. Marketing trends & future prospects of herbal medicine in the treatment of various disease. World J. Pharm. Res. 2015; 4: 132-155.
3. Jazani AM, Hamdi K, Tansaz M, Nazemiyeh H, Sadeghi Bazargani H, Fazljou SMB and Nasimi Doost Azgomi R. Herbal medicine for oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea: a systematic review of ancient and conventional medicine. Biomed. Res. Int. 2018; Article ID 3052768. [DOI:10.1155/2018/3052768]
4. Ramezani-Gask M, Bahrani, MJ, Shekafandeh A, Salehi H, Taghvaei M and Al-Ahmadi MJ. A comparison of different propagation methods of common caper-bush (Capparis spinosa L.) as a new horticultural crop. Int. J. Plant Dev. Biol. 2008; 2: 106-110.
5. Inocencio C, Rivera D, Alcaraz, F and Tomás-Barberán, FA. Flavonoid content of commercial capers (Capparis spinosa, C. Sicula and C. Orientalis) produced in Mediterranean countries. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2000; 212: 70-74. [DOI:10.1007/s002170000220]
6. Afzal S, Afzal N, Awan MR, Khan TS, Khanum AG and Tariq S. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan. J. Ayub. Med. Coll. Abbottabad. 2009; 21: 52-57.
7. Ao M, Gao Y and Yu L. Advances in studies on constituents and their pharmacological activities of Capparis spinosa. Chin. Tradit. Herb. Drug. 2007; 38: 463-467.
8. Mahboubi M and Mahboubi A. Antimicrobial activity of Capparis spinosa as its usages in traditional medicine. Herba. Pol. 2014; 60: 39-48. [DOI:10.2478/hepo-2014-0004]
9. Gadgoli CH and Mishra SH. Antihepatotoxicity avtivity of p-methoxy benzoic acid from Capparis spinisa. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 66(2): 187-192. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00229-3]
10. Eddouks M, Lemhadri A and Michel JB. Hypolipidemic activity of Capparis spinosa in normal and diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 98(3): 345-350. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.053]
11. Aichour R, Benzidane N, Arrar L, Charef N, Baghiani A. Hepatoprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Algerian Capparis spinosa L. Ann. Res. Rev. Biol. 2018; 25(3): 1-12. [DOI:10.9734/ARRB/2018/40410]
12. Hashemnia M, Oryan A, Hamidi AR and Mohammadalipour A. Blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with hydro-ethanol extracts of Allium sativum and Capparis spinosa. African J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2012; 6(21): 1559-1564. [DOI:10.5897/AJPP12.330]
13. Bonina F, Auglia C, Ventura D, Aquino R, Tortora S, Sacchi A, Saija A, Tomaino A, Pellegrino ML and de Caprariis P. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photo protective effect of a lyophilized extract of Capparis spinosa buds. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2002; 53(6): 321-335.
14. Prakash D, Suri S, Upadhyay G and Singh BN. Total phenols, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2007; 58(1): 18-28. [DOI:10.1080/09637480601093269]
15. Ramezani Z, Aghel N and Keyghobadi H. Rutin from different parts of Capparis spinosa growing wild in Khuzestan/Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2008; 11: 768-772. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2008.768.772]
16. Rodrigo M, Lazaro MJ, Alvarruiz A and Giner V. Composition of capers (Capparis spinosa): Influence of cultivar, size and harvest date. J. Food Sci. 2006; 57: 1152-1154. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb11286.x]
17. Sharaf M, El-Ansari MA and Saleh NAM. Quercetin triglycoside from Capparis spinosa. Fitoterapia 2000; 71: 46-49. [DOI:10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00116-1]
18. Khatib M, Pieraccini G, Innocenti M, Melani F and Mulinacci N. An insight on the alkaloid content of Capparis spinosa L. root by HPLC-DAD-MS, MS/MS and 1H qNMR. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2016; 123: 53-62. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2016.01.063]
19. Khanavi M, Ara L, Khavassi N and Hajimehdipoor H. Capparis spinosa: A comparative study of raw and processed fruits. J. Med. Plants. 2020; 19(73): 91-99. [DOI:10.29252/jmp.1.73.91]
20. Zhang H and Ma ZF. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa as a Medicinal Plant. Nutrients. 2018; 10: 116-129. [DOI:10.3390/nu10020116]
21. Tlili N, Khaldi A, Triki S and Munné-Bosch S. Phenolic compounds and vitamin antioxidants of caper (Capparis spinosa). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2010; 65: 260-265. [DOI:10.1007/s11130-010-0180-6]
22. Korkmaz A and Kolankaya D. Protective effect of rutin on the ischemia/reperfusion induced damage in rat kidney. J. Surg. Res. 2010; 164: 309-315. [DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2009.03.022]
23. Milde J, Elstner EF and Grassmann J. Synergistic inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by rutin, gamma-terpinene, and ascorbic acid. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11: 105-113. [DOI:10.1078/0944-7113-00380]
24. Shirooye P, Mokaberinejad R, Ara L and Hamzeloo-Moghadam M. Volatile constituents of ginger oil prepared according to Iranian traditional medicine and conventional method: A comparative study. Afr. J. Trad. Complement. Altern. Med. 2016; 13(6): 68-73. [DOI:10.21010/ajtcam.v13i6.11]
25. Moein E, Hajimehdipoor H, Toliyat T, Choopani R and Hamzeloo-Moghadam M. Formulation of an aloe-based product according to Iranian traditional medicine and development of its analysis method. Daru J. Pharm. Sci. 2017; 25(1): 19-27. [DOI:10.1186/s40199-017-0185-x]
26. Jahandideh M, Hajimehdipoor H, Mortazavi SA, Dehpour A and Hassanzadeh G. wound healing formulation based on Iranian traditional medicine and its HPTLC fingerprint. Iranian J. Pharm. Res. 2016; 15: 149-157.
27. Khavasi N, Hosein Somi M, Khadem E, Faramarzi E, Ayati MH, Fazljou SM and Torbati M. Effect of daily caper fruit pickle consumption on disease regression in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Adv. Pharm. Bull. 2017; 7(4): 645-650. [DOI:10.15171/apb.2017.077]
28. Editorial board. The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP 42, NF 37). Rockville: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 2018.
29. Moufid A, Farid O and Eddouks M. Pharmacological properties of Capparis spinosa Linn. Int. J. Diabetol. Vasc. Dis. Res. 2015; 3(5): 99-104.
30. Momen Tonkaboni SM. Tohfat al-momenin. Ghom: Noore Vehy, 1390.
31. Dehdari S, Hajimehdipoor H, Esmaeili S, Mortazavi SA and Choopani R. Formulation and finger printing of a poly herbal film-coated tablet for treatment of hemorrhoids. Res. J. Pharmacogn. 2020; 7(4): 39-47.
32. Huseini HF, Hasani-Rnjbar S, Nayebi N, Heshmat R, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Ahvazi M, Alaei BA and Kianbakht S. Capparis spinosa L. (Caper) fruit extract in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complement. Ther. Med. 2013; 21(5): 447-452. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2013.07.003]
33. ICH harmonised tripartite guideline. Stability testing of new drug substances and products Q1A (R2), 2003. [Accessed 2021]. Available from:

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Medicinal Plants

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb