year 22, Issue 85 (3-2023)                   J. Med. Plants 2023, 22(85): 89-97 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 994/7

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alijaniha F, Emadi F, Naseri M, Bahaeddin Z, Dehparvar N. Some physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of Iranian Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo-gum resin. J. Med. Plants 2023; 22 (85) :89-97
1- Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; School of Persian Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran ,
2- Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; School of Persian Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
3- School of Persian Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (679 Views)
Background: Ferula assa-foetida is an endemic medicinal plant of Iran. Its oleo-gum resin or assafoetida gum (AG) is an important herbal product whose standardization is important to ensure effectiveness and safety. Objective: Due to the lack of accurate and complete data about Iranian AG, the objective of this study is to extend the available knowledge by reporting some physicochemical and phytochemical properties of an Iranian AG sample. Methods: Organoleptic properties were determined by sensory evaluation. Total ash, acid-insoluble ash, dry residue as well as total phenolic and flavonoid content were measured by accepted methods to determine some physicochemical and phytochemical properties of AG. Analysis of its essential oil by GC/MS as well as microbial load assessment were performed. Results: The AG was a yellowish brown mass with a sulfur-like pungent odor similar to garlic, with total ash and acid-insoluble ash of 2.83 % and 2.06 %, respectively, and a dry residue of 3.43 %. Total phenol content was 4.15 ± 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalent/g in dry AG. (E)-1-Propenyl sec-butyl disulphide, (Z)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulphide, and 2,4-thiazelidinedione were the major essential oil component of this oleo-gum resin. Microbial load was in acceptable range according to Pharmacopeia. Conclusion: The current findings provide data on some of the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Iranian AG which is applicable for completing current knowledge. Although more information is needed for establishing Iranian AG standardization criteria, which will be obtained from more extensive researches.
Full-Text [PDF 647 kb]   (431 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Medicinal Plants
Received: 2022/11/20 | Accepted: 2023/02/28 | Published: 2023/03/1

1. Zomorodian K, Saharkhiz J, Pakshir K, Immeripour Z and Sadatsharifi A. The composition, antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2018; 14: 300-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.bcab.2018.03.014]
2. Mozaffarian, V. A Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names. Seven the d., Tehran: Farhang Moaser Publisher; 2013, 228-230.
3. Ghasemi-Dehkordi N, Sajadi SE, Ghannadi A, Aman zadeh Y, Azadbakht M, Asghari Gh, Amin Gh, Hajiakhundi A and Taleb AM. Editorial committee for Iranian herbal Pharmacopoeia. Iranian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Tehran, IR Iran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education; 2002, 34-43.
4. Barzegar A, Salim MA, Badr P, Khosravi AR, Hemmati S, Seradj H, Iranshahi M and Mohagheghzadeh AA. Persian asafoetida vs. sagapenum: challenges and opportunities. Res. J. Pharmacog. 2020; 7(2):71-80.
5. Tehran Chamber of Commerce I, Mines & Agriculture. Asafoetida (Accessed 2019). Available from:
6. Iranshahy M and Iranshahi M. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and Pharmacology of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin)-A review. J. EthnoPharmacol. 2011; 134(1): 1-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.067]
7. Amalraj A and Gopi S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Asafoetida: A review. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2017; 7(3): 347-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.11.004]
8. Bagheri SM, Dashti-R MH and Morshedi A. Antinociceptive effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin in mice. Res Pharm Sci 2014; 9(3): 207-12. PMID: 25657791; PMCID: PMC4311286.
9. USP Pharmacopeia. 40 th edition. Articles of botanical origin ˂561˃.
10. USP Pharmacopeia.40 th edition. LOSS ON DRYING 〈731〉.
11. EDQM (Council of Europe). European Pharmacopoeia 6th edn: EDQM; 2008.
12. Zargaran A, Sakhteman AH, Faridi P, Daneshamouz S, Akbarizadeh AR, Borhani-Haghighi A and Mohagheghzadeh AA. Reformulation of traditional chamomile oil: quality controls and fingerprint presentation based on cluster analysis of attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectral data. J. Evid. Based Complementary Altern. Med. 2017; 22(4): 707-14. [DOI:10.1177/2156587217710982]
13. Araj-Khodaei M, Noorbala AA, Yarani R, Emadi F, Emaratkar E, Faghihzadeh S, Parsian Z, Alijaniha F, Kamalinejad M and Naseri M. A double-blind, randomized pilot study for comparison of Melissa officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. with Fluoxetine for the treatment of depression. BMC Complement. Med. Ther. 2020; 20(1): 1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s12906-020-03003-5]
14. Ghisleni DDM, Braga MDS, Kikuchi IS, Braşoveanu M, Nemţanu MR, Dua K and Pinto T. The microbial quality aspects and decontamination approaches for the herbal medicinal plants and products: an in-depth review. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2016; 22(27): 4264- 87. [DOI:10.2174/1381612822666160623070829]
15. Niazmand R and Razavizadeh BM. Ferula asafoetida: chemical composition, thermal behavior, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and gum hydroalcoholic extracts. J. Food Sci. Technol. Mysore 2021; 58(6): 2148-59. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-020-04724-8]
16. Hassanabadi M, Ebrahimi M, Farajpour M and Dejahang A. Variation in essential oil components among Iranian Ferula assa-foetida L. accessions. Ind. Crops Prod. 2019; 140: 111598. [DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111598]
17. Karimian V, Ramak P and Majnabadi JT. Chemical composition and biological effects of three different types (tear, paste, and mass) of bitter Ferula assa-foetida Linn. gum. Nat. Prod. Res. 2021; 35(18): 3136-41. [DOI:10.1080/14786419.2019.1689495]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Medicinal Plants

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb