year 19, Issue 75 (9-2020)                   J. Med. Plants 2020, 19(75): 17-29 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Jamshidi A H, Eghbalian F, Mahroozade S, Mohammadi kenari H, Ghobadi A, Yousefsani B S. Recommended natural products in Alzheimer's disease based on traditional Persian medicine. J. Med. Plants. 2020; 19 (75) :17-29
1- Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ,
Abstract:   (526 Views)
Background: Alzheimerchr('39')s disease is the most common cause of dementia, especially in elderlies. Its exact pathogenesis is not yet known and existing therapies do not have enough efficacy. Therefore, the use of complementary therapies such as traditional Persian medicine for improving memory function is increasing. Objective: The aim of this study is evaluating recommended natural products in important traditional Persian medicine textbooks. Methods: For this purpose, keywords such as "Nesyan" (ie: oblivion, amnesia), "Hafezeh" (ie: memory), "Zekr" (ie: mention) and "Faramoushi" (ie: forgetfulness( were used to search in recommended prescription in important traditional Persian medicine textbooks. Then, the most repeated plants were extracted from the prescription and evaluated for their pharmacological properties recently published articles cited in the scientific databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. Results: 262 natural products were in 96 evaluated prescription, 40 natural products were more repeated. These products were introduced in the table. Besides, their neuroprotective effects, antioxidant effects, and anti-Alzheimerchr('39')s disease effect were also included in the table. Conclusion: Based on these results, traditional Persian has introduced many treatments for Alzheimerchr('39')s disease, which requires clinical studies to prove or disprove their efficacy and safety.
Full-Text [PDF 551 kb]   (176 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Traditional Pharmacy & Traditional Medicine
Received: 2020/05/30 | Accepted: 2020/08/22 | Published: 2020/08/31

1. Brookmeyer R, Evans DA, Hebert L, Langa KM, Heeringa SG and Plassman BL. National estimates of the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in the United States. Alzheimers. Dement 2011; 7(1): 61-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2010.11.007]
2. Katzman R. The prevalence and malignancy of Alzheimer disease: a major killer. Arch. Neurol. 1976; 33(4): 217-218. [DOI:10.1001/archneur.1976.00500040001001]
3. Amtul Z. Neural plasticity and memory: molecular mechanism. Rev Neurosci. 2015; 26(3): 253-268. [DOI:10.1515/revneuro-2014-0075]
4. Kordafshari G, Ardakani MR, Keshavarz M, Esfahani MM, Nazem E, Moghimi M, Zargaran A and MohammadiKenari H. The Role of Phlebotomy (Fasd) and Wet Cupping (Hijamat) to manage dizziness and vertigo from the viewpoint of Persian medicine. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2017; 22(3): 369-373. [DOI:10.1177/2156587216672757]
5. Eghbalian F, MohammadiKenari H, Kordafshari G, Karimi M, Atyabi A and Shirbeigi L. The Role of Phlebotomy (Fasd) and Cupping in the Treatment of Epilepsy from Perspective of Persian Medicine. Iran. J. Public Health 2019; 48(7): 1392-1394. [DOI:10.18502/ijph.v48i7.2977]
6. Ahmadian-Attari M.M. and Shirzad M. Physiopathology of Dementia in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med 2016; 21(4): 253-254. [DOI:10.1177/2156587215607837]
7. Ahmadian-Attari MM, Eslami S., Dargahi L and Noorbala AA. Common herbal treatments for senile dementia in ancient civilizations: Greco-Roman, Chinese, Indian, and Iranian. J. Med. Plants Res 2020, 1(73): 37-62.‏ [DOI:10.29252/jmp.1.73.37]
8. Avicenna H. Al-Qanoon fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). Dare Ehia Attorath Al Arabi. Beirut; 2005: 350-359.
9. Arzani MA. Teb e Akbari [Akbati's Medicine]. Research Institute for Islamic and Complimentary Medicine, Tehran, Iran; 2008: 250-254.
10. Zhang Z, Wang X, Chen Q, Shu L, Wang J and Shan G. Clinical efficacy and safety of huperzine Alpha in treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Zhonghua. Yi. Xue. Za. Zhi. 2002; 82(14): 941-944.
11. Aghili MH. Gharabadin Kabir. Iran University of Medical Sciences publisher. Tehran, Iran; 2006: 124-130.
12. Nazem Jahan MA. Exir Azam. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences - Institute of History of Medicine, Islamic and Complementary Medicine; 2008: 35-44.
13. Nazem Jahan MA. Gharabadin azam. Tehran: Daneshgah Olom Pezeshki Iran; 1383: 78-80.
14. Hosseini Shafaei MEM. Qarabadin-e-Shafaei. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences; 2004.
15. Mohammad karimkhan. Daghaegh al alaj. Tehran. Chogan; 2006.
16. Hritcu L, Noumedem JA, Cioanca O, Hancianu M, Kuete V and Mihasan M. Methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits improves memory impairment by decreasing brain oxidative stress in amyloid beta (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 2014; 34(3): 437-449. [DOI:10.1007/s10571-014-0028-y]
17. Yang W, Chen Y-H, Liu H and Qu H-D. Neuroprotective effects of piperine on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. Int. J. Mol. Med. 2015; 36(5): 1369-1376. [DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2356]
18. Gülçin İ. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr 2005; 56(7): 491-499. [DOI:10.1080/09637480500450248]
19. Mathew S, Abraham TE. In vitro antioxidant activity and scavenging effects of Cinnamomum verum leaf extract assayed by different methodologies. Food. Chem. Toxicol 2006; 44(2): 198-206. [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.06.013]
20. Ramshini H, Ebrahim-Habibi A, Aryanejad S, Rad A. Effect of Cinnamomum Verum Extract on the Amyloid Formation of Hen Egg-white Lysozyme and Study of its Possible Role in Alzheimer's Disease. Basic and clinical neuroscience 2015; 6(1): 29.
21. Gomada Y. Neuroprotective Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) Via Modulation of Stress Response Signaling. Texas State University-San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas. 2012.
22. Waggas AM. Neuroprotective Evaluation of Extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Root in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Defferent Brain Areas Male Albino Rats. Pak. J. Biol. Sci 2009; 12(3): 201. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2009.201.212]
23. Mathew M and Subramanian S. In vitro evaluation of anti-Alzheimer effects of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract. Indian. J. Exp. Biol 2014; 52(6): 606-612.
24. Stoilova I, Krastanov A, Stoyanova A, Denev P and Gargova S. Antioxidant activity of a ginger extract (Zingiber officinale). Food. Chem 2007; 102(3): 764-770. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.023]
25. Cheng H-Y, Lin T-C, Yu K-H, Yang C-M and Lin C-C. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula. Biol. Pharm. Bull 2003; 26(9): 1331-1335. [DOI:10.1248/bpb.26.1331]
26. Afshari AR, Sadeghnia HR and Mollazadeh H. A review on potential mechanisms of Terminalia chebula in Alzheimer's disease. Adv. Pharmacol. Sci. 2016. [DOI:10.1155/2016/8964849]
27. Chang CL and Lin CS. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity, and neuroprotective effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius extracts. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med 2012. [DOI:10.1155/2012/125247]
28. Moussaieff A, Shein NaA, Tsenter J, Grigoriadis S, Simeonidou C, Alexandrovich AG and Shohami, E. Incensole acetate: a novel neuroprotective agent isolated from Boswellia carterii. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2008; 28(7): 1341-1352. [DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2008.28]
29. Yassin N, El-Shenawy S, Mahdy KA, Gouda N, Marrie A, Farrag A, et al. Effect of Boswellia serrata on Alzheimer's disease induced in rats. Journal of the Arab Society for Medical Research. 2013; 8: 1-11.
30. Hartmann RM, Martins MIM, Tieppo J, Fillmann HS and Marroni NP. Effect of Boswellia serrata on antioxidant status in an experimental model of colitis rats induced by acetic acid. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2012; 57(8): 2038-2044. [DOI:10.1007/s10620-012-2134-3]
31. Saleem S, Ahmad M, Ahmad AS, Yousuf S, Ansari MA, Khan MB, Ishrat T and Islam F. Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats. J. Med. Food 2006; 9(2): 246-53. [DOI:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.246]
32. Khalili M, Hamzeh F. Effects of active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocin on streptozocin-induced model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease in male rats. Iran. Biomed. J. 2010; 14(1-2): 59.
33. Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Jaafar HZ. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity. Molecules. 2010; 15(9): 6244-56. [DOI:10.3390/molecules15096244]
34. Bi Y, Qu P-C, Wang Q-S, Zheng L, Liu H-L, Luo R, Chen X-O, Ba Y-Y, Wu X and Yang H. Neuroprotective effects of alkaloids from Piper longum in a MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Pharm. Biol 2015; 53(10): 1516-24. [DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.991835]
35. Chonpathompikunlert P, Wattanathorn J and Muchimapura S. Piperine, the main alkaloid of Thai black pepper, protects against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in animal model of cognitive deficit like condition of Alzheimer's disease. Food Chem. Toxicol 2010; 48(3): 798-802. [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.009]
36. Reddy NJ, Vali DN, Rani M, Rani SS. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit. MAT. SCI. ENG. C-MATER 2014; 34: 115-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2013.08.039]
37. Mohammadi M, Asili J, Kamali H. Study of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity in methanolic, dichloromethan and hexane extracts of aerial parts of Cyperus longos. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences 2014; 6(1): 161-7. [DOI:10.29252/jnkums.6.1.161]
38. Adhami HR, Farsam H, Krenn L. Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian traditional medicine for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Phytother. Res 2011; 25(8): 1148-52 [DOI:10.1002/ptr.3409]
39. Zhang J, Yang X, Pan Y, Teng W, Yuan X, Chao G and JuYing W. Cytological effect of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of SP1 generation of Dianthus barbatus. J. For. Res. (Harbin). 2011; 39(6): 24-37.
40. M Calderon-Montano J, Burgos-Morón E, Pérez-Guerrero C, López-Lázaro M. A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol. Mini. Rev. Med. Chem. 2011; 11(4): 298-344. [DOI:10.2174/138955711795305335]
41. Кatsarova М, Dimitrova S, Lukanov L, Sadakov F, Denev P, Plotnikov E, Kandilarov I and Kostadinova I. Antioxidant activity and nontoxicity of extracts from Valeriana officinalis, Мelissa officinalis, Crataegus monogyna, Hypericum perforatum, Serratula coronatа and combinations Antistress 1 and Antistress 2. Bulg. Chem. Commun. 2017; 49: 93-8.
42. Nazir R, Thakur A and Pandey D.K. Biotechnological strategies for production of anti-Alzheimer compounds from Valeriana spp. Journal of the Gujarat Research Society. 2019; 21(8): 653-71.
43. Kumar GP, Anilakumar K, Naveen S. Phytochemicals Having Neuroprotective Properties from Dietary Sources and Medicinal Herbs. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2015; 7(1): 1-17. doi: 10.5530/pj.2015.7.1 [DOI:10.5530/pj.2015.7.1]
44. Ammari M, Othman H, Hajri A, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Pistacia lentiscus oil attenuates memory dysfunction and decreases levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats. Brain. Res. Bull 2018; 140: 140-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.04.014]
45. Quartu M, Serra MP, Boi M, Pillolla G, Melis T, Poddighe L, Del Fiacco M, Falconieri D, Carta G, Murru E and Cordeddu L. Effect of acute administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil on rat cerebral cortex following transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Lipids. Health. Dis 2012; 11(1): 8. [DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-11-8]
46. Mansouri SMT, Naghizadeh B and Hosseinzadeh H. The effect of Pistacia vera L. gum extract on oxidative damage during experimental cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Iran Biomed J. 2005; 9 (4): 181-185.
47. Moure A, Franco D, Sineiro J, Domı́nguez H, Núñez MaJ and Lema JM. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Gevuina avellana and Rosa rubiginosa defatted seeds. Food Res Int. 2001; 34(2-3): 103-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00136-8]
48. Shukla PK, Khanna VK, Ali MM, Maurya R, Khan M and Srimal RC. Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat. Human & Experimental Toxicol. 2006; 25(4): 187-94. [DOI:10.1191/0960327106ht613oa]
49. Ahmed F, Chandra J, Urooj A and Rangappa K. In vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of Acorus calamus and Nardostachys jatamansi rhizomes. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009; 2(5): 830-83. Available online through www.
50. Devi SA and Ganjewala D. Antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of sweet-flag (Acorus calamus) leaves and rhizomes. Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants. 2011; 17(1): 1-11. [DOI:10.1080/10496475.2010.509659]
51. Rose K, Wan C, Thomas A, Seeram NP and Ma H. Phenolic Compounds Isolated and Identified from Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) Juice Powder and their Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Activities. Nat Prod Commun. 2018; 13(10). [DOI:10.1177/1934578X1801301019]
52. Biswas K, Islam A, Sharmin T and Biswas PK. In-vitro cholinesterase inhibitory activity of dry fruit extract of Phyllanthus emblica relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The Journal of Phytopharmacol. 2015; 4: 5-8.
53. Liu X, Zhao M, Wang J, Yang B and Jiang Y. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of emblica fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.) from six regions in China. J Food Compost Anal. 2008; 21(3): 219-28. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfca.2007.10.001]
54. Mimica-Dukić N, Couladi M, Jovin E, Tzakou O, Bozin B and Simin N. Essential oil and antioxidant activity of Asaraum europaeum L. (Aristolochiaceae); 2014; 29-35.
55. Kopyt'ko YF, Shchurevich N, Sokol'skaya T, Markaryan A and Dargaeva T. Uses, Chemical Composition, and Standardization of Plant Raw Material and Medicinal Substances from Plants of the Genus Asarum L. Pharmaceutical Chemistry J. 2013; 47(3): 157-68. [DOI:10.1007/s11094-013-0917-2]
56. Hancianu M, Cioanca O, Mihasan M and Hritcu L. Neuroprotective effects of inhaled lavender oil on scopolamine-induced dementia via anti-oxidative activities in rats. Phytomedicine. 2013; 20(5): 446-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.12.005]
57. Zali H, Zamanian-Azodi M, Tavirani MR and Baghban AA. Protein drug targets of lavandula angustifolia on treatment of rat Alzheimer's disease. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015; 14(1): 291. PMCID: PMC4277642.
58. Spiridon I, Colceru S, Anghel N, Teaca CA, Bodirlau R and Armatu A. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania. Nat. Prod. Res. 2011; 25(17): 1657-61. [DOI:10.1080/14786419.2010.521502]
59. Soubir T. Antioxidant activities of some local Bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa). Chinese journal of biotechnology. 2007; 23(2): 257-61.
60. Lakshmi B, Sudhakar M and Anisha M. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Neurotoxicol. 2014; 41: 73-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2014.01.003]
61. Ma L, Xiao H, Wen J, Liu Z, He Y and Yuan F. Possible mechanism of Vitis vinifera L. flavones on neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission and related learning and memory in Alzheimer model rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2018; 17(1): 1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s12944-018-0708-6]
62. Jayaprakasha GK, Singh R and Sakariah K. Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food chem. 2001; 73(3): 285-90. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00298-3]
63. Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi A and Khani M. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74(7): 863-6. [DOI:10.1136/jnnp.74.7.863]
64. Koksal E, Bursal E, Dikici E, Tozoglu F and Gulcin I. Antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis leaves. J. Med Plant Res. 2011; 5(2): 217-22.
65. López V, Martín S, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Carretero ME, Jäger AK and Calvo MI. Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis. Neurochem Res. 2009; 34(11): 1955-61. DOI 10.1007/s11064-009-9981-0 [DOI:10.1007/s11064-009-9981-0]
66. Sujith K, Darwin CR and Suba V. Memory-enhancing activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012; 2(4): 307-11. [DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60067-X]
67. Selles C, Dib MEA, Allali H and Tabti B. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L., from Algeria. Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry 2012; 2(2): 408-15. Available free online at [DOI:10.13171/mjc.2.2.2012.01.11.22]
68. Manouze H, Bouchatta O, Bennis M, Sokar Z and Ba-M'hamed S. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum root in kainic acid-induced-status epilepticus in mice. Epilepsy Res. 2019; 158: 106225. [DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.106225]
69. Zeng Q, Siu W, Li L, Jin Y, Liang S, Cao M, Ma M and Wu Z. Autophagy in Alzheimer's disease and promising modulatory effects of herbal medicine. Exp Gerontol. 2019 May 1; 119: 100-10.‏ [DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2019.01.027]
70. Yousefsani BS, Akbarizadeh N and Pourahmad J. The antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Zolpidem on acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity using Wistar rat primary neuronal cortical culture. Toxicol Rep. 2020; 7: 233-40. [DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.01.010]
71. Rahimi VB, Askari VR, Hosseini M, Yousefsani BS and Sadeghnia HR. Anticonvulsant Activity of Viola tricolor against Seizures Induced by Pentylenetetrazol and Maximal Electroshock in Mice. Iran. J. Med. Sci. 2019; 44(3): 220. PMCID: PMC6525727
72. Mirheidary R, Saber SS, Shaeiri MR and Fesharaki MG. A Survey and Prioritizing of Medicinal Herbs Effective on Memory Improvement in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Med. Hist. 2019 May 22; 10(35): 9-19.
73. Shojaii A, Ghods R and abdollahi Fard M. Medicinal herbs in Iranian traditional medicine for learning and memory. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2016; 13(2): 199-209. 199. [DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v13i2.24]
74. Farzaei MH, Shahpiri Z, Mehri MR, Bahramsoltani R, Rezaei M, Raeesdana A and Rahimi R. Medicinal plants in neurodegenerative diseases: perspective of traditional Persian medicine. Curr. Drug. Metab. 2018 Apr 1; 19(5): 429-42. [DOI:10.2174/1389200219666180305150256]
75. Ahmadian-Attari MM, Ahmadiani A, Kamalinejad M, Dargahi L, Shirzad M and Mosaddegh M. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Iranian traditional medicine. Iran. Red. Crescent. Med. J. 2015 Jan; 17(1). doi: 10.5812/ircmj.18052. [DOI:10.5812/ircmj.18052]
76. SoltaniArabshahi S, MohammadiKenari H, Kordafshari G, Shams-Ardakani M and Bigdeli S. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine. Acta Medica Iranica. 2015; 53(7): 419-24.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Medicinal Plants

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb