Volume 2, Issue 70 (5-2019)                   J. Med. Plants 2019, 2(70): 73-86 | Back to browse issues page

DOI: 10.29252/jmp.2.70.73


XML Persian Abstract Print


1- M.Sc. in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran
2- Associat Professor in Biochemistry, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran , mazarei@uok.ac.ir
Abstract:   (761 Views)
Background: The enzyme tyrosinase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase, which is involved in melanogenesis. It catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to melanin pigments in mammals. Tyrosinase plays an important role in enzymatic browning, which causes discoloration and loss economic value of many plant food products. This enzyme is widely distributed in fungi, higher plants and animals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the tyrosinase inhibitory effect of hexane extracts of different aerial parts of Astragalus vegetus Bungi and Gundelia turnifortii L. Later the kinetics and antioxidant activities of the extracts with the highest inhibitory properties were assessed.
Methods: Aerial parts of the plants were divided to stems, leaves and flowers and air-dried. Hexane extract of each part has obtained by maceration in n-hexane. Inhibitory effects assayed at four different concentrations, using a microplate reader at 492 nm. Kojic acid used as positive control. DPPH method used to determine the antioxidant activities of the extracts and ascorbic acid (positive control). GC/MS device utilized to determine the composition of the extracts.
Results: Main inhibitory activity detected at 1 mg/ml concentration of hexane extract of leaves of Astragalus vegetus Bunge (66.6%), and the leaves and flowers of Gundelia turnifortii L. (71.7 and 68.7 percent respectively). IC50 values for Astragalus vegetus Bungi leaves was 0.5 mg/ml. and for Gundelia turnifortii L. leaves and flowers, were 0.5 and 0.32 mg/ml respectively. Astragalus vegetus Bungi.plant leaves also showed a considerable antioxidant activity. GC/MS analysis of extracts didn't show any reliable result.
Conclusion: These results suggest that some of the most effective extracts from analyzed plants in this study, may be worthy for further investigation to obtain some new tyrosinase inhibitors with pharmacological applications.
Full-Text [PDF 524 kb]   (434 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2017/04/27 | Accepted: 2017/05/5 | Published: 2019/05/26

References
1. Abbasi A.M, Khan M.A, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Jahan S and Sultana S. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-WestFrontier Province. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 128: 322-335. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.052]
2. DeWet H, Nciki S and vanVuuren S.F. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Maputaland. South African Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2013; 9: 51. [DOI:10.1186/1746-4269-9-51]
3. van Gelder CW, Flurkey WH and Wichers HJ, Sequence and structural features of plant and fungal tyrosinases. Phyto Chem. 1997; 45: 1309-23. [DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00186-6]
4. Hearing VJ, Determination of melanin synthetic pathways. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2011; 131: 8 - 11. [DOI:10.1038/skinbio.2011.4]
5. Mayer AM, Polyphenol oxidases in plants: recent progress. Phyto Chem. 1987; 26: 11 - 20. [DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81472-7]
6. Rigal D, Cerny M, Richard-Forget F and Varoquaux P. Polyphenol oxidase by a Carica papaya latex preparation. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2001; 36: 677-84. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2001.00498.x]
7. Tripathi R.K, Hearing VJ, Urabe K, Aroca P, and Spritz R.A. Mutational mapping of the catalytic activities of human tyrosinase. J. Biological. 1992; 267: 23707-23712.
8. Schallreuter K U, Hasse S, Rokos H, Chavan B, Shalbaf M and Spencer JD. Cholesterol regulates melanogenesis in human epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Experimental Dermatol. 2009; 18: 680-688. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00850.x]
9. Kim YJ and Uyama H. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the futur. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 2005; 62: 1707-23. [DOI:10.1007/s00018-005-5054-y]
10. Chang TS. An updated review of tyrosinase inhibitors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009; 10: 2440-75. [DOI:10.3390/ijms10062440]
11. Zong-Ping Z, Hui-Yuan T, Jie Ch and Mingfu W. Characterization of tyrosinase inhibitors in the twigs of Cudrania tricuspidata and their structure-activity relationship study Fitoterapia 2013; 84: 224 - 42. [DOI:10.1016/j.fitote.2012.12.006]
12. Jimbow K, Obata H, Pathak MA and Fitzpatrick TB. Mechanism of depigmentation by hydroquinone. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1974; 62: 436-49. [DOI:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12701679]
13. Curto EV, Kwong C, Hermersdörfer H, Glatt H, Santis C and Virador V. Inhibitors of mammalian melanocyte tyrosinase: in vitro comparisons of alkyl esters of gentisic acid with other putative inhibitors. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1999; 57: 663-72. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00340-2]
14. Zhu Y. J, Zhou H. T, Hu Y. H, Tang J. Y, Su M. X and Guo Y. J. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities of 2-phenylethanol, 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylacetic acid. Food Chem. 2011; 124: 298-302. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.036]
15. Hashemi F and Zarei MA. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity Within Hexane Extract of Ten Screened Plants From Kurdistan Province of Iran. International Journal of Advanced Res. 2014; 2 (11): 2795-2799.
16. Khatib S, Nerya O, Musa R, Shmuel M, Tamira S and Vayaa J. Chalcones as potent tyrosinase inhibitors: the importance of a 2,4-substituted resorcinol moiety. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2005; 13: 433-441. [DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.10.010]
17. Fu R, Zhang Y, Guo Y and Chen F. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities of the ethanol-insoluble fraction of water extract of Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. leaves. South African Journal of Botany 2014; 93: 98-104. [DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2014.04.003]
18. Dung NT, Ajpai VK, Rahman A, Yoon JI and Kang SC. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of Loonier japonica thumb. Journal of Food Biochemistry 2011; 35: 148-160. [DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00461.x]
19. Jun Young K, Kyeong Yeol Oh, Ji Young K, Hyung Won R, Sook J and Ki Hun P. Polyphenols Displaying Tyrosinase Inhibition from the Seed of Psoralea corylifolia. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 2010; 534: 427-432. [DOI:10.3839/jksabc.2010.066]
20. Mai F, Nobuo Y and Mitsuo M. Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from the bark of Peltophorum dasyrachis (yellow batai). Natural Product Res. 2011; 25: 1540-1548. [DOI:10.1080/14786410903313106]
21. Chun L, Ju-Hwan L, Seung-Hyung K and Dong-Seon K, Dioscin: A synergistic tyrosinase inhibitor from the roots of Smilax china. Food Chem. 2012; 134: 1146-1148. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.003]
22. Tomas FM K, Teunie van H, Jean-Paul Vi, Renske H J, Deborah L N, Willem v.B and Harry G. Potato and Mushroom Polyphenol Oxidase Activities Are Differently Modulated by Natural Plant Extracts J. Agric Food Chem. 2013; 62: 214-221. [DOI:10.1021/jf4043375]
23. Ozlem D, Temine S, Mehmet O and Gulacti T. Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids fromTrifolium nigrescens Subsp. Petrisavi. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013; 61: 12598-12603. [DOI:10.1021/jf403669k]
24. Yang Y, Yang S, Chen M, Zhang X, Zou Y, and Zhang X. Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza extract exerts anti-fibrosis by mediatingTGF-beta/Smad signaling in myofibroblasts. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 118: 264-270. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2008.04.012]
25. Cho W and Leung K. Invitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Letters 2007; 252: 43-54. [DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2006.12.001]
26. Auyeung K, Law P and Ko J. Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis via an ERK- independent NF-κB signaling pathway in the human hepatocellular HepG2cell line. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2009; 23: 189-196.
27. Ebrahimzadeh H, Niknam V and Maassoumi A. A. The sterols of Astragalus species from Iran: GLC separation and quantification. Biochemical Systematics and Ecol. 2001; 9: 393-404. [DOI:10.1016/S0305-1978(00)00065-X]
28. Asgary S, Movahedian A, Badiei A, Naderi GA, Amini F and Hmidzadeh Z. Effect of Gundelia tournefortii on some cardiovascular risk factors in animal model. Journal of Medicinal Plants Res. 2009; 7 (28): 112-119.
29. Sarper F, Akadin G, Simsek I and Yesildad E. An ethnobotanical field survey in the haymana district of Ankara Province in Turkey. Turkish J. Biol. 2009; 33: 79-88.
30. Coruh N, Saghdicoglu Celep AG, Ozgokce F and Iscan M. Antioxidant capacities of Gundelia tournefortii L. extract and inhibition on glutathione-S-transferase activity. Food Chem. 2007; 100: 1249-53. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.008]